February 2021 Print

Fort Pitt Division

David Matthews, editor  [email protected]

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Fort Pitt Division News

Website News

I hope everyone is well and staying warm.  Your author has spent much quarantine time updating our website,  There are now over 600 photos posted covering the era from 2005 – 2020.  There are pictures of division meets, Christmas parties, summer outings, and tin plate talks as well as events at the Carnegie Science Center and the Home and Garden Show.  Are you curious about where the 2008 summer outing was?  There are pictures!  Click on the Photos button at the top of the homepage.  You will be given a choice of 10 albums from which to choose.  Select one and relive wonderful days of train fun.

Exciting news:  We have begun a new album: 2000-2004, which will feature pictures from that important period in Division history.  Future plans include albums of pictures from the 1990’s, 1980’s and 1970’s. 

If you have information or questions about pictures, or if you have pictures you would like to submit, please contact the Lockon at [email protected] 

Division Presidents: Perhaps you were wondering who the Fort Pitt Division president was in 1986.  If you go to the member section of our website,, on the left-hand side of the page, under the members link, click on the Division Presidents button.  You will discover a complete list, courtesy of the Library staff at National.

2021 Dues Notice

 By now, you should have received your 2021 dues notice and your 2021 membership card.  The cover letter explained, “With the difficulties in having train meets and any other events in 2020, the [Fort Pitt Division] Board of Directors voted to continue your membership through 2021, without requesting annual dues.”  Though it is definitely not required, many of you have made generous donations.  THANK YOU VERY MUCH!

2021 Election

2021 is an election year for the Fort Pitt Division.  We will elect a president, vice president, secretary, treasurer and three members to the Board of Directors.  You will receive a ballot at the beginning of April, which must be returned by April 30.

April 2021 York Meet Cancelled

Dan Danielson, President, Eastern Division-TCA has announced that the April 2021 York Meet has been cancelled.  The meet is not in compliance with state and York Expo (fairgrounds) requirements during the coronavirus pandemic and therefore cannot be held.  Danielson advises to keep your original badge issued for the April 2020 meet, which will be good when the next York meet is held.

No York? No Problem

The Fort Pitt Division will sponsor an outdoor train meet on Saturday, April 24, 2021.  The meet will take place at 3249 Sardis Road, Murrysville, PA 15668, the picnic area across from the Murrysville Fire Department.  Early admission for TCA members will be at 8:00 a.m. 

Early admission: $10 with free admission for spouses.  General admission: The meet will be open to the public from 9:00 a.m. until 2:00 p.m. General admission: $5 per family/car.

In Memoria: Carl Abinanti

 The TCA Fort Pitt Division mourns the passing of Carl Abinanti, on January 5, 2021.  Carl served the Division as an officer and a member of the board of directors for decades.  His tenure included two terms as president.  Most members recognize Carl as the Meet Chairman, a post he held since Fort Pitt became a division in 1977.  With his wife, Phyliss, they formed a team that provided members with well-organized, successful meets.  It has been said that the most important thing a TCA division does is sponsor train meets and without them, it would cease to exist.  Carl’s focus on the prosperity of the Division through the success of our meets cannot be overstated.  His unwavering leadership will be deeply missed.


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In Memorium

I Remember Randy

by Bob Boyer Jr.

My pre-teen years were idyllic, living in a large, drafty three-story wood-framed double house with a slate mansard roof on Main Street in Mount Pleasant PA, with my parents and me on one side, and my dad’s parents on the other.  The attic was enormous, courtesy of the mansard roof (and the eyes of an eight-year-old), and whenever one of the four adults wondered where Bob Jr. was, I could usually be found ensconced in the attic, where my dad’s then-diminutive train collection and his 3/16” train layout were located.

One Friday evening at dinner, my dad mentioned a new train collector friend, Mr. Malcom Berger would be visiting.  The implication was I would be allowed to join them in the attic, assuming adherence to the standing Boyer requirement “children should be seen and not heard”.  I’m not sure what I was expecting prior to meeting Mr. Berger, but I was taken aback when I climbed the dark, narrow steps to the train room and came face-to-face with a young, muscular, wiry man that looked like he had just walked off the set of a James Dean movie.  Malcom Berger in his 20s was deliberate, serious, and clearly not someone with whom to be trifled.  I recall being impressed with my father for having such a “cool” friend. Little did I realize this first encounter was the start of a rewarding and enduring friendship that would last almost sixty years, finally ending for my dad with his death in 2016, and for me, with Randy’s death on July 4, 2020.

In the early years, Messrs. Boyer/Berger started buying and selling trains for fun and profit, and I really enjoyed accompanying them to train meets.  They would usually leave me in charge of sales at the table.  Once, Randy pulled me aside, and in a serious and scholarly manner taught me the art of the counter-offer.  Because of his tutelage, prospective buyers back then were frequently surprised to find themselves negotiating with a twelve-year-old.

As the years rolled by, my dad developed a high degree of respect for Randy, for his serious interest in toy trains, for his helpful nature, for his intelligent and thoughtful opinions, but perhaps most importantly, in spite of being dealt many significant challenges and obstacles as a youth, Randy overcame them with dogged determination and constant help and direction from his wife, Barb, and went on to secure post-high school formal education, obtain and maintain quality employment, raise a family, and develop an excellent sense of integrity and “veritas”, all while learning a thing or two about toy trains and Packards.  In return, Randy was a fiercely loyal friend of my father’s.  If one could truthfully state that Randy Berger was their good friend, they were lucky indeed.  For Randy, being a good friend was something of a sacred trust.

Randy had an encyclopedic knowledge of toy trains and domestic automobiles, but he knew much, much more, and was a seeker of knowledge his entire life.  I spent a lot of time over the years talking to Randy on non-train related topics, most recently with adjoining tables at York, and during visits to our home for dinner and conversation.  Anecdotally, Randy could render an informed opinion on the 1945 Malta Conference or the merits and faults of various US presidents, but he also knew who the 4th and 5th Marx brothers (comedians, not trains) were, and he knew who had the lead roles in “I Remember Mama”.  Perhaps even more importantly, Randy was comfortable with himself to the extent that he had no qualms saying “I don’t know” whenever he was not certain.

After my Dad passed away, Donna and I would invite Randy over for lunch or dinner regularly.  After the meal, “the boys” would retire to my diminutive train room, and the discussion would frequently move away from train collecting; Randy would become introspective.  It was poignant to observe that the no-nonsense, quiet, intense man I met many years ago had evolved to a wise, yet jocular elder statesman of sorts, knowledgeable on many subjects, comfortable with his station in life, profoundly thankful for his good fortune to marry Barb, very proud of his children and grandchildren, and grateful for his circle of friends.  On more than one occasion, he would stare at the trains and say “Nah, they’re just tin toys; it’s family and friends that are really important!”

I recall the “Parable of the Talents” (Matthew 24:14-30), wherein the master provides money to three servants before departing on a trip, and the servants are to make the best of the hand they are dealt.  Randy would have won that contest.  In spite of many early challenges, he chose his life-long companion wisely, secured a meaningful education, raised a family, reveled in his extensive circle of family and friends, and pursued his avocations with interest and vigor.  May all of us be that successful.


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Member Feature

By Chris DiCianna

Lionel started producing OO or “Double ‘Oh’” gage trains in 1938.   OO gauge trains are between HO and S Gauge in size and were popular for a few years before HO took over as the most common small-scale trains right before WWII.    Lionel produced 4 different sets of OO gage trains before the war stopped toy train production.   Their product line was limited as their entire line consisted of the Hudson Locomotive and four cars.    They did make scale detailed and semi-detailed versions of the cars and locomotives and sold them as 2-rail or 3 rail sets.   The 3-rail sets used a smaller radius of track and thus more compact layouts could be made.  Lionel marketed them as “Apartment Trains”.  OO Trains have remained a very small segment of the train operating and collecting hobby and many collectors are not familiar with them.   Though very collectable most people have never seen a Lionel OO gauge train in operation.  

While at the Spring 2018 Eastern Division meet at York, I was struck by an operating OO layout on display in the White Hall.  I had Lionel OO trains in the past and was familiar with the line but seeing a single scale detailed Hudson operating on a Figure 8 track really appealed to me.     I knew that fellow Ft. Pitt Member, George Starz had a large quantity of 3 rail OO track that he was selling.     Quickly I sent a text message to George to see if he still had the track.   He said that he still had it and told him to consider it “sold”.  Now with a large box of track and switches available I had to find a OO set or two to run.    My quest was short as by the end of Thursday I had found two sets.   Both sets were 3-rail versions in both scale details and semi-detailed version.    

Returning home from York I started to think about a OO gauge layout.   I always liked Lionel Post-war display layouts and knew that the Lionel catalogue featured a picture of a OO layout with both 2-rail and 3-rail track.     I decided to create a layout that would be similar to what Lionel might have made for a store or marketing display. 

Knowing that I wanted to recreate as much as possible a 1940 era display layout I set out to use only materials available in 1940.  Following the pattern of early postwar layouts, I decided to go with 5 ply plywood on 3”x1” pine frames.  I nailed the frame and plywood in lieu of using screw or nail gun pins.  Everything was hand nailed.   Once the frame was completed, I primed it and sealed the wood for a finish of an oil-based paint.    

Since an original display layout like this does not exist, I followed the paint pattern of known OO gauge layouts and some of the known Lionel display pieces from the late 1930s.  They were painted in a semi-gloss cream or ivory colored paint.   The effect was exactly what I was looking for.

The finished table platform.  Painted and ready for track

Now came the layout and track planning.  Of course, while I was building this 6’x4’ frame I had visions of what the track plan would look like.   Knowing I had half a dozen switches and enough track to do about any plan I could fit, I ran a lot of track plans through my head.   This was not going to be a model railroad, so I was not worried about a track plan from that standpoint.  I wanted simplicity as Lionel Display layouts were meant to be simple and were meant to showcase the trains in action.  I also considered that almost all display layouts highlight features of Lionel Trains, so I decided that I wanted to incorporate the non-derailing feature of Lionel switch tracks.  Lionel’s non-derailing switches are often overlooked in the pantheon of great Lionel developments.   Starting in the late 1930’s Lionel incorporated a feature in all of their remote-control O-gauge switches that enabled the trains to run opposite the switch and automatically switch the track to the correct alignment thus avoiding a derailment when the engineer was ‘asleep’ at the switch.   Savvy operators of Lionel trains recognized that this feature allowed for creative track plans where on switch track can be used as a relay to throw another switch or cause action in an accessory.  I decided that the switches had to do something and cause some action other than a train going around in a circle.   My only dilemma was that I wanted the ability to run a two-rail locomotive as well and there was no way to do this with switch track.

What I settled on was a simple outer loop of track that I can toggle from two-rail to three-rail to run any of the Lionel OO Locomotives and some non-Lionel OO trains.   The inner loop would feature at least two pairs of switches all interlocked with each other to create a varied track plan.   After putting several track plans together, I hit on the idea that if this was a “DOUBLE O” layout then I needed to have two circles of track that created what looks like two side by side letter “O”s on the layout.   My track plan was then settled.


The “Double O” layout taking shape.

I spent considerable time going through the large bin of track I acquired cleaning all sections and removing green paint from a long forgotten OO layout.   I then tested and serviced all the switches.  Lionel’s OO switches did not disappointment me.  They are extremely well made and engineered and only one of the 6 failed to operate properly.   Once the track was ready, I started to lay it per the track plans in my head.   OO track assembles easily.  Unfortunately, not much of it was still straight.  Almost all the sections have a bit of a bow as the plastic roadbed material has changed shape over the years.     I realized I had to use wood and plastic shims under the center of the track to keep the track true and level.  I used black flat head wood screws to hold the track down.  I learned that the best application was to set the track and drill a small pilot hole into the wood and put the wood screw in but not tight. I left about a 1/16” of an inch play in each screw for later adjustment.   

After the track was set, I then set about to wire the layout.  Again, trying to stick with materials that were available in 1940, I reached into my buried wire stash to finally use all the wire that I had accumulated from train sets bought out of houses over the years.  This proved to be invaluable.  I found I had two unused spools of Belden cloth insulated wire from the 1940s.    I decided to use this even though the gauge was heavy and would cause me some problems later.  I was also limited to two colors, black and red, so I was limited in my color coding for track and accessories.   I wired each loop to several feeds.  I used OO terminal track connections on the inner loop and soldered leads under the track to the outer loop.  I controlled the feeds through a toggle switch so that I can alternate between two and three rail operation for this loop.  (Lionel was thinking ahead and made the outside rails isolated on the three rail track unlike any other type of three rail track where both outside rails are electrically connected.)

I got lucky again in my wire box when I found many feet of three conductor rubber insulated wire that was vintage 1950’s or earlier.   This was perfect for the switch track remote controls.   I wired the controllers directly and then ran leads from each switch back to the control panel where I put double pole knife switches.  Using these switches and the leads to the switch tracks, I’m able to turn the automatic track routing feature off when I don’t want to use it.

I finished the track and wiring in the late spring of 2019.   The layout sat mostly untouched for nearly a year until COVID.   With the lockdown I realized I now had time to finish the layout.  I decided that the layout needed some action.  Lionel never made a OO accessory.  Fortunately, some of the accessories available in the early 1940’s are suitable for OO.  The No. 47 gate crossing works excellent as does the No. 135 power station.  The 184 Villa and associated plots work nicely to add a scenic touch to the layout.  Again, everything had to be available in 1940 and I tried to stick with the proper variations for those years.   In the case of the Bungalow and power station that has proven difficult as the late colors are scarce and can be expensive.

Adding to the Lionel Accessories, I added one Sky-Line Card Stock Kit.  Sky-Line made O Scale and HO/OO scale kits in the late 1930s and early 1940s.  Lionel had some arrangement with Skyline and their buildings were featured on prewar layouts and in Lionel Promotions. 

After studying original factory layouts, both pre and postwar I decided to follow Lionel’s pattern by using their artificial grass.  I searched for pre-war grass which turned out to be all but impossible to find so I settled on postwar No. 209 grass.  Following the advice of Ft. Pitt Member Bryant Robey, I painted the grassed area a green base, closely matching the green used on scenic plots.    I carefully painted to about ½’ from the track to create the appearance I was looking for.  I applied grass directly to the paint and allowed it to dry.   A light vacuum removed the loose grass.     This process went faster than I expected and within a few days I had a nearly finished layout.   I added Lichen to simulate shrubbery and to conceal wires at the switch machines and track terminals.   I also followed Lionel’s typical design process and placed the buildings and accessories on the layout and left a bit of the white outlines showing.  This also saved on grass application. 


Two trains passing by the Lionel Scenic Plots

The finished layout includes two scenic plots and villa, 47 crossing gate, 48 whistling station, Bungalow and 135 power station.   I wired the crossing gate and whistling station to single piece of track that I used to trip the gate and blow the whistle.  Even though OO trains had whistling tenders this allows the layout to provide some animation and sound without any operator interaction.  Perfect for a display layout.

Control panel features a Type V Transformer and vintage 1940 switches.

I enjoy watching two or three OO trains operate on this layout.   Lionel’s brief effort into OO trains produced what are, in my opinion, some of the finest model trains of the first half of the 20th Century.

Check out my YouTube Channel for videos of the trains in action:


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Tin Plate Talks

Paper Trains, part 1

If you Google “Paper Trains”, Pinterest will provide nearly two dozen options for the creation of trains with paper.  Though paper model trains actually have a long history, particularly in Europe, this genre became a phenomena in the United States during World War II.  In the first of this two part series, we will examine Lionel’s contribution to the field as well as the 1981 Greenberg reproduction.

Set No. 50: Lionel Wartime Freight Train: Lionel Corporation 1943

During World War II, the United States government placed restrictions on the use of various metals.  In the Lionel Corporation Annual Report dated May 29, 1942, Joshua Lionel Cowen stated, “Your management is united with all other patriotic Americans in determination to do whatever must be done – to fight and win this battle of production…”. In June 1942, Lionel suspended all train production in favor of the war effort.

As with many American companies, the early 1930’s was a difficult period for Lionel.  There were four years of losing money (1931-1934) which resulted in the company being placed in receivership that lasted until January 1935.  With this fresh in his mind, one can imagine Cowen’s trepidation that his Lionel brand would go unnoticed during the war years.  That’s when he was approached by Samuel Gold.  Known as the “Premium King,” he was a designer of novelty items given away with candy, cereal, and soft drinks.  Like Cowen, he too, was concerned about the lack of materials for his products.

LIONEL STEEL has gone to war!

Lionel sought to manufacture an item that strictly adhered to war production guidelines.  No metal parts could be used, and the design had to be simple enough that one worker could complete the project without taking others from the war production effort.  Additionally, any new entry would require assembly by the buyer at home, again so that no factory workers were involved.  In March 1943, Gold made an agreement with Cowen to design an all-paper train which Lionel produced.  That Christmas, thousands were sold for $1.

The Lionel Wartime Freight Train, Set #50, came in a flat box, which proudly proclaimed,

"authentic, realistic, brilliantly colored, ready to assemble, with no vital war materials used."  Lionel further boasted, “the train actually rolls around oval track [on] rolling flanged wheels.”


The set, decorated for Lionel Lines included a steam locomotive, tender, boxcar, gondola, and caboose. all printed on ten sheets of 11 x 15” heavy cardstock. The parts were pre-scored and tabbed to facilitate punch out and assembly without scissors or glue.

The wheels were made of heavy pasteboard which was scored on both sides.  A packet of 22 axles was also included to complete the train.  To build the track, enough rails and ties were provided to construct a circle of track 16 feet in length.  The rails were pushed down into notched ties, then offset so that a rail would connect to the next section.


In addition, there were three railway workers and a crossing signal and crossing gate. 

Greenberg 1981 Reproduction

In 1981, Greenberg created a reproduction of the Lionel Wartime Freight Train.  The Greenberg set included a 2-6-2 steam locomotive, a Lionel Lines coal tender, #61100 yellow freight car with red roof, #2812 red gondola, and #477618 red cupola caboose.


In addition to the detailed instruction sheets, Greenberg provided a page entitled “Additional Suggestions for Assembling the Lionel Paper Train Set.”  Unlike the original, the parts for this set were not scored.  The instructions recommended using an X-acto blade to cut out the parts.  Rather than including a packet of axles, it was suggested to buy 3/16” dowels at a hobby shop.  From these, the builder could cut sixteen 2” axles for the tender, two freight cars and the caboose, plus five 1 1/16” axles for the steam engine.

While the wheels for the original set were a multipart glued assembly, the Greenberg provides two sets of round blanks, a tread blank, and a flange blank.  Those had to be carefully cut out and glued together with a piece of ¼” Styrofoam (not included) in between.


To assemble the track, the ties were folded into a box shape, and the locking tab carefully inserted.  The rails were cut out, scored, and then pushed into the tie grooves.  Sections of track were created using three ties, per section.  As with the original, the rails were offset so that sections could be connected, as shown in the directions shown below.


Conclusion: The Paper Train can make a beautiful display and an important addition to a collection.  Building one however is a tedious task requiring significant time, patience, and dexterity.  Thousands were purchased as Christmas gifts in 1943, but few were completely assembled. 

On a recent check of eBay, I found Greenberg Reproductions selling for approximately $20-$25, while the asking price of an original Lionel Wartime Freight in good condition was $349-$399.


Hollander, Ron (1981). All Aboard. The story of Joshua Lionel Cowen & his Lionel train company.  Sidetracked 1930-1944 (pp. 127-156). Workman Publishing.

Burke, Jim (Winter 1975). Lionel steel becomes paper tinplate. The Train Collectors Quarterly. (pp 16-18).

Peterson, Eric Sayer (July 1994). The lion lays an egg. Lionel’s paper train may have been the company’s biggest flop. Classic Toy Trains Magazine (pp 53-55).

Berger, Malcolm R et al (1989). Lionel trains. Standard of the world, second edition. Paper train 1943. (p. 53)

Special thanks to Jim Burke for his invaluable assistance with this article and to Jim and Bob MacDowell from whose collection photos were taken.

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Trains of Local Interest

Pittsburgh Brewing Company

MTH SW9 Diesel Switcher 30-2454-1

Over the past two years, the Lockon has featured articles about model trains which celebrate local themes.  The focus of this, our sixth installment in the series is the Pittsburgh Brewing Company cars from MTH.

In the November 2019 issue of the Lockon, with his permission, we reprinted an excerpt from the wonderful 2002 interview Marty Eibeck did with Rich Foster, vice president of sales for MTH.  For this article, again, with his consent, we reference Marty’s work.

Marty described Rich Foster as “a very pivotal player in researching and working with the Pittsburgh companies and landmarks represented in the series.” When asked about the relationship between MTH and Pittsburgh, Foster sighted “the small town feel in a fairly big town so there seems to be more hometown feeling from the locals.”  Further, he said there is a strong connection in Pittsburgh with railroads as many people had a relative who worked for them.


Though MTH produced numerous cars with connections to Western Pennsylvania, including Isaly’s, Heinz, KDKA, Kennywood, and more, the Pittsburgh Brewing Company is where the tradition began.  The first cars were released in 2002 with new additions continuing through 2012.


2002 - 2003

The initial Iron City beer cars were purchased directly from the brewery store.  MTH delivered the first car, #30-7838 in February 2002.  Labeled Collectors Series, it was a cream colored, O Gauge RailKing reefer celebrating the 140th anniversary of the Pittsburgh Brewing Company.  Three 3-dome tank cars followed quickly.  In March, MTH delivered #30-7366 in black and yellow, labelled IC Light; #30-7367 in white, labelled Iron City beer; and #30-7368, cream colored, labelled Pittsburgh Brewing Company.  Interestingly, the MTH website shows #30-7367 as an uncatalogued 3-dome Iron City Light tank car with the road name, Iron City Beer, yet on the car is printed “draft beer,” not IC Light.


In April, two more RailKing reefers were delivered.  #30-7830, Iron City Beer #1 is cream colored with an unusual blue logo and bearing the marking 140th Anniversary Edition Collectors Series.  #30-7832, Iron City Beer #3 is black, silver, and yellow, celebrating IC Light.  One more Iron City reefer was delivered in August, #30-7831, Iron City Beer #2, in traditional Iron City Beer colors of black and white with the red logo.

Late in 2002, MTH delivered two reefers with less familiar Pittsburgh Brewing Company names, #30-7840, in red and blue, bore the name, American Beer; and #30-7853, with the road name, Olde German Beer.  In total, MTH delivered 9 PBC cars that first year including six reefers and three tankers.


MTH expanded their Pittsburgh Brewing Company roster in 2003 with two RailKing 40’ flatcars with trailers, #30-76110 and #30-76092 as well as a lighted billboard, 30-90044, This is City Living


Diversification of the Iron City product line continued to be an MTH theme.  2004’s output included an Industrial Water Tower, #193, and a Lighted Billboard advertising Iron City Light, #30-90072, as well as a standard gauge tanker, #10-2086. 

Though 2005 saw only new one car, a Premier operating reefer, #20-94095, 2006 was exceptional year.  Eight new items were added to the Iron City inventory including an SW9 switcher with Proto Sound 2, #30-2454-1, and a bobber caboose, #30-77062.  Also new was an operating freight platform, #30-90189, as well as a reefer and a tank car for the locally famous Olde Frothingslosh “pale, stale, ale.”


In addition, three exquisite Iron City Beer cars were added, a 4-bay cylindrical hopper, #30-75195, a 50’ double door plugged boxcar, #30-74404, and a chrome tank car, #30-73214.



Throughout the production of Iron City Beer cars, MTH emphasized tankers.  As previously mentioned, a chrome Iron City tanker was introduced in 2006.  The following year, its IC Light chrome companion, #30-73238 was delivered while in 2008, a Premier 8000 gallon tanker, #20-96178 in white with the red Iron City logo appeared.  Also new in 2007-2008 was a steel caboose, #30-77142, and a black and red reefer, #30-78072.



The second half of 2010 produced several remarkable products from MTH.  First was the Premier 60’ Reefer, #20-94224.  At 16 ½” by 2 ½” by 3 ½”, it was impressive for its size and style.  Later that summer, a Premier operating reefer, #20-94236 was delivered, with features that included a workman pushing out product and simulated dry ice smoke.  Finally, in October came a 3-story city building, the Iron City Pub, complete with a fire escape and blinking sign. 

Terminal:  MTH concluded their production of Pittsburgh Brewing Company cars in 2012 with a beautiful RailKing reefer, #30-78121 decorated for Augustiner Dark Lager. In total, approximately 27 rolling stock, 2 cabooses and an SW9 switcher were created along with eight buildings and accessories.  There were also two beer train sets, one in 2006 and one in 2007 which included Iron City cars.  Western Pennsylvania collectors and railroad enthusiasts owe much to Mike Wolf, Rich Foster, and everyone at MTH for their contributions to the regional spirit.

Augustiner Dark reefer #30-78121 delivered in December 2012


A huge thank you to Joe Kraynik for the photos from his collection.  I am grateful for his knowledge and patience.

Additional resources:



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